Monday, August 24, 2020

Death and Dying in Hinduism and Buddhism

Demise and Dying-Customs and Rituals Hinduism and Buddhism Religious and social convictions assume a critical job in the procedures of death and biting the dust. These convictions have made customs that give an applied structure to understanding the experience of death. Societies over the world have extraordinary, one of a kind customs encompassing passing and kicking the bucket. This can be demonstrated by looking at Hinduism and Buddhism. Their pre-passing ceremonies, entombment rituals and ideas of the great beyond are totally different. Hindus and Buddhists have differing pre-demise ceremonies. At the point when demise is impending, Hindus are carried home to die.They are set in either their room or the portal of their home with their head confronting east. A light is lit close to their head, and the individual is urged to concentrate on their mantra. The Hinduism religion expresses that a mantra is a word continued during intervention. Relatives sing songs, supplicate and read s acred text for the withering individual. At the point when Buddhists are biting the dust, it is dependent upon their family to keep them positive. Friends and family should free themselves of upsetting feeling. It is their obligation to enable the withering individual to acknowledge demise as a characteristic and inescapable piece of life.Hindus customs are scripted, strict and self-dependant while Buddhist’s ceremonies are low-upkeep and for the most part dependant on relatives. Taking everything into account, Hinduism and Buddhism are altogether different with respect to pre-passing ceremonies. Hinduism convictions about existence in the wake of death shift essentially from Buddhism convictions. Hindus accept that people experience a ceaseless pattern of birth and demise. Hindus have faith in karma. Karma is â€Å"action, seen as bringing upon oneself unavoidable outcomes, fortunate or unfortunate, either in this life or in a resurrection: in Hinduism one of the methods fo r coming to Brahman† (Collins English Dictionary, Web).Buddhists accept that each spirit is reawakened until it has been washed down. In Buddhism, the objective is to accomplish Nirvana. Nirvana is â€Å"freedom from the unending pattern of individual resurrections, with their ensuing anguish, because of the annihilation of individual energy, scorn, and dream. † (Collins English Dictionary, Web). Hastily, these two ceremonies appear to be comparative, yet contrasts can be found on a more profound level. Hinduism is an endless cycle, while Buddhism can be gotten away. The greatest contrast among Hinduism and Buddhism is their internment ceremonies. Hindu families get ready beneficiary perished with oil and herbs. The body is carried on a wooden edge to a publically assigned incineration site where grievers serenade mantras. After the body has been incinerated, bits of bone and debris that remain are gathered and flung into the Holy River. Ten days after the incineration, relatives offer ten pindas to the waterway to take care of the soul of the expired on its movements to the following manifestation. Buddhists hold straightforward, serious burial services. They trust it is pointless to spend a ton of cash on customary services. During the review, a special raised area is set up before the casket.Mourners can put contributions, for example, natural product, blossoms and candles on the raised area. Pictures of the Buddha and perished individual are put before the raised area. These religions are distinctive on the grounds that Hindus entombments are detailed and costly, while Buddhists internments are straightforward, down to earth and cheap. Entombment rituals uncover how extraordinary Hinduism and Buddhism are. Hinduism and Buddhism have totally different pre-passing ceremonies, ideas of existence in the wake of death and entombment rituals. This demonstrates all religions have an interesting arrangement of conventions encompassing passing and kick ing the bucket. These conventions help shape religion and make a different society.Bibliography Hitchcock, Susan Tyler. Topography of Religion: Where God Lives, Where Pilgrims Walk. Washington DC: National Geographic Society, 2004. Print. Berhad, Koperasi Buddhisme Malaysia. A Guide to a Proper Buddhist Funeral. Ocean Park: Buddha Dharma Education Association Inc, 2000. Print. Collins English Dictionary. â€Å"Karma. † Dictionary Reference. 2009. HarperCo Publishers. Walk 6, 2013 < http://word reference. reference. com/peruse/karma> Collins English Dictionary. â€Å"Nirvana. † Dictionary Reference. 2009. HarperCo Publishers. Walk 6, 2013 < http://word reference. reference. com/peruse/nirvana>

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Counseling Ethics Samples for Students †

Question: Examine about the Counseling Ethics Case of Susan Lim. Answer: Susan Lim is an unmistakable specialist in Singapore who has played out a few complex medical procedures all through her vocation. Because of her remarkable capacities, she is well known the whole way across the globe. She was head specialist in the principal liver transplant in Singapore, turned into the most youthful individual and first Singaporean to turn into the individual of Trinity College, Melbourne. In 2001, she attempted the instance of Pengiran Anak Hajah Damit, the sister of Brunei sovereign. In 2007, the patient kicked the bucket a d Dr. Susan Lim was blamed for cheating the patient with an extremely high charge. As indicated by the media reports, Dr. Susan Lim was blamed for making a bill of 40 million dollars during the time of 2001 to August 2007 (Asia One Health, 2016). In the later examinations, it was discovered that the bills developed were incredibly high than the typical conditions. In 2013, specialist was arraigned and seen as blameworthy. Singapore National C ouncil recorded a body of evidence against the Susan Lim and won the case in the end. The specialist was seen as liable. During the judgment, the specialist introduced her side by expressing that she charged the patients in understanding to the administrations gave to them. She expressed that in spite of the fact that the costs were high, however they were in agreement to the administrations. So as to fantastic administrations to her customer, she got preparing from the whole way across the globe. In a few examples, she herself paid for the administrations gave to her customer, for example, sending the patient from Singapore to Brunei; consequently, she was just asking them from the customer (John Harding, 2011). Besides, her expert lead can be investigated from the way that so as to stop the lawful processioning, she undermined the Singapore Medical Council that she can bring into light a few pointless and humiliating realities which can carry disgrace to the legislature and the illustrious group of Singapore. She expressed that she knows the conflicting connection between Ministry of Health, Government of Brunei and the regal group of Brunei. The danger brought her a second disciplinary activity. ID of Ethical Dilemma The code of clinical morals guideline express that the specialists ought not cheat their patients. As per the expert morals, specialists should charge their patient as per the administrations gave by them. Be that as it may, same isn't the situation of Doctor Susan Lim. Additionally, cheating is against the expert practices, as it alludes to misleading and maltreatment of ones position. It tends to be studied that there was another ethical issue wherein that the specialist attempted to compromise the administration to drop the allegations. Significant Stakeholders of the Case: Upon the survey of the moral issue, the significant partners can be recognizes as Brunei Royal Family, Singapore Medical Council, Singapore government and the specialist herself. Susan Lim Susan Lim was the essential partner in the moral issue. She was the performing specialist who took instance of the patient for a long time. She was of the perspective that she offered uncommon types of assistance to the patients, welcomed the remote experts and got preparing which made it adequate for her to excessively charge her patients (Youtube, 2011). Singapore Medical Council (SMC) Singapore Medical Council was likewise a significant partner for the situation, as it is the duty of the association to keep up the expert respectability among the social insurance experts and specialists in the Singapore. Any penetrate of obligation is against is break of rules of the Singapore Medical Council. In the current circumstance, Dr. Susan Lim penetrated the rules of Singapore Medical Council and the association should attempt to force advocated punishment for the unscrupulous conduct (Broad, 2000). Brunei Family Brunei family is the casualty in the current circumstance. The specialist abused the family because of their over the top riches and impact. The specialist attempted to acquire as much expenses as possible as she realized that her customer was equipped for paying higher charges. At the point when she confronted preliminary, Susan Lim additionally attempted to misuse the defenseless relations between Brunei government and Royal family as she knew about their relations (Timmons, 2012). Singapore Government It is the duty of the administration to shield the general public from a lawbreaker or common offense. The expert clinical society of Singapore has made set of accepted rules for the medicinal services experts with the goal that they work morally. In the current case, the Singapore government is a partner as it is its obligation to keep up peace in the nation. Moral Dilemma The moral quandary can be characterized as a circumstance wherein an individual is clashed between various courses of moves in which making one activity will bring about violating some other good goal. In the current circumstance, the moral problem of cheating the patient has been distinguished. The specialist determined the charges as indicated by her viewpoint and assumed that the remarkable administrations gave to the customer legitimize the expenses forced upon them. She independently treated one patient and held all her concentration to the sister of the imperial sovereign of Brunei (Garber, (2008). In this way, in her point of view, the charges forced upon the customer were supported. Be that as it may, the regal group of Brunei was disappointed with the specialists charges as they were incredibly high. They assumed that the specialist was accusing them of high beyond words their riches. Moral Theories In the ongoing years, countless good hypotheses have risen to look at whether certain activities are ethically fit or not. These hypotheses attempt to give a deliberate technique to assess whether certain activities are ethically right or wrong. Be that as it may, distinctive good speculations are reliant upon alternate points of view and a few times negate one another. In the current area, the moral problem of Doctor Susan Lim is analyzed under various moral structures. Utilitarianism Utilitarianism is the most famous and basic moral hypothesis which expresses that the each one of those activities are moral which have better results for the general public. The utilitarianism is an adaptation of consequentialism and states that solitary the consequence of specific activities can be sorted as right or wrong. In this system, the enthusiasm of the considerable number of partners is considered similarly. There are sure advantages and impediments of utilitarianism (Dreier, 2009). The upsides of utilitarianism are that it advances fairness and bliss of the considerable number of individuals on the planet and help the individuals in taking intense choices. In the majority of the perplexing and intense choices, the feelings and the craving of the individuals become prevalent; in any case, embracing utilitarianism approach help the individuals in deduction soundly and taking the correct choice (Jacobs, 2008). At the point when this hypothesis is applied to the instance of Doctor Susan Kim, it very well may be assessed that the activity is ethically advocated. The cheating of charges was morally off-base as it was just gainful for the specialist. The customer was wronged as the charges were amazingly high and decided by his luxuriousness. In addition, the activity will be an awful impact on the general public as it is a penetrate of the ethical set of principles of the human services experts. Teleology The teleology hypothesis of profound quality expresses that the ethical quality of the activities relies upon the normal results of the activities. Teleology hypothesis expresses that if an individual is following a specific game-plan to accomplish great from the circumstance, at that point that activity is advocated (Hinman, 2012). The teleology hypothesis has certain burdens like it permits indecent activities on the appearance of better results. The results of the vast majority of the activities are very dubious; in any case, it permits the individuals to take ethically unjustified activities (Alexandra Miller, 2009). As indicated by this hypothesis, the activities of Susan Lim are ethically off-base as she was not centered around the treatment of the patient instead of expanding the likelihood of charging her customer in the most extreme conceivable way. In spite of the fact that she offered uncommon types of assistance to the patients, estimating her customer profoundly was consistently in her brain. Advising Process Specialist Susan Lim ought to be given directing on the ethical defenses of her activity. Receiving a profound quality structure and analyzing the activities through it can help the specialist in taking ethically right activities. Dynamic Process In the day by day life of experts, it is significant that the individuals should take ethically right and moral choices. So as to take ethically right and right choices, the experts need a dynamic system. In the current segment, an eight-advance dynamic model is proposed which can help specialist in moral choices sooner rather than later. As indicated by this model, the dynamic procedure has eight stages. Stage 1: In this stage, the issue is characterized. In great dynamic, the difficult definition is significant. It help individual in setting up lucidity on the real issue and looking at different perspective of various partners. In this stage, the root or the basic reasons for specific issues is distinguished. Notwithstanding it, in this stage the restricting suspicions, framework and the interface limits and the partner issues are distinguished (McKee, Kemp Spenxce, 2012). Stage 2: In the second period of the model, the necessities for the satisfactory arrangement are recognized. The Acceptable arrangement must meet certain necessities and address the hidden issue. The prerequisites characterize what the arrangement must have the capacity to do. Stage 3: In the third stage, objectives and goals are characterized which can be accomplished by the arrangement. It alludes to the wide articulations of aim and incentive with the choice. Stage 4: In the fourth stage, the individual ought to consider on various options which can be utilized to address the difficult explanation. In great dynamic, it is

Thursday, July 23, 2020

Not Looking at my Phone in Class has Saved Me Money

Not Looking at my Phone in Class has Saved Me Money Its no secret that our generation loves our phones. I absolutely love social media; the idea of connecting with people across the world is a powerful one. From Facebook to Twitter to Instagram, you could literally spend your entire life scrolling the newsfeeds, liking, sharing, and retweeting. However, when youre a student, you are responsible for your own learning. At Illinois, you must take advantage of the next four years. Using your phone is a distraction for not only you but also for your fellow classmates and professors. What if I told you that there are financial benefits to not using your phone in class? Theres an app available for University of Illinois students called Pocket Points  (available for download on the App Store) that encourages you to shut off your phone while in academic buildings during class. For every five minutes you dont use your phone, you earn one point! When you get a certain number of points, you are able to cash in those points for coupons and even free food at local campus restaurants. Source: For example, if you get five points, you get a FREE Jr. Frosty from the Illini Unions Wendys. Pay attention in class and actually learn, and get free ice cream while youre at it. Its a win-win! The more points you get, the better the coupon is. The most popular coupon on the mobile app is a FREE medium pizza from Papa Johns Pizza! You have to have 100 points to earn this though. There are very few mobile apps these days that can actually enhance your academic experience while inside of the classroom here at Illinois, but thankfully, Pocket Points is here to help us become better students and better Illini! Daniel Class of 2018 I’m an Advertising major in the College of Media. I’m from a northwest suburb of Chicago called Buffalo Grove. I chose Illinois because it was the first university in the entire world to offer an Advertising major, which is pretty cool!

Friday, May 22, 2020

Critical Book Review Forgotten Fire by Adam Bagdasarian

In his book Forgotten Fire, author Adam Bagdasarian investigates the Armenian Genocide through the eyes of a twelve year old Armenian boy named Vahan Kenderian. Through Vahan, the reader experiences the atrocities committed during the 1915 genocide of Armenians in Turkey. The Turks, who were Muslim, viewed the Christian Armenians as inferiors and treated them as such; under Turkish law, Armenians had nearly no rights, no fair justice in Turkish courts, could not bear arms, and were taxed far higher than Turks, which led to many families losing their possessions and homes. But unlike many other Armenian families of the time, Vahans family, consisting of two girls, four boys (including Vahan), Vahans Uncle Mumpreh, grandmother Toumia, and†¦show more content†¦Gregorys Orphanage. During this time, Vahan went back to school. In the epilogue of the book, Vahan is reunited with his sister Oskina, and learns that the remaining members of his family, his mother and uncle, died not l ong after Vahan had escaped. In this book, the author identifies several themes including loneliness, loss of faith, and identity. The theme of loneliness can be seen throughout the book, when Vahan gets close to a particular person, theyre viciously ripped away, usually in death. An example of this can be seen in the scene in which Vahan is staying in the stable of Selim Beys father and a young girl is sent to stay with him. Because he had been alone for so long, Vahan is extremely excited that he has someone to confide in. But the young girl is not willing to trust Vahan as easily as he trusts her, and with good reason. Vahan soon discovers why the girl is really there when several gendarmes come to the stable during the night and rape the young girl, and Vahan is powerless to stop them. At one point, Vahan remarks, The problem with loneliness is that, unlike other forms of human suffering, it teaches us nothing, leads us nowhere, and generally devalues us in our own eyes and in the eyes of othersÂ….It sim ply comes, sits

Thursday, May 7, 2020

Case Study Organizational Culture At Ideo - 1063 Words

Case Analysis #3 IDEO LaNon A. Edwards Ivy tech Principles of Management 3//1/2016 Using the competing values framework as a point of reference, how would you describe the current organizational culture at IDEO? Provide examples to support your conclusions. Organizational culture refers to shared assumptions, values and beliefs that show how people behave in the work place. The shared values greatly influence how the people in the organization dress, act and perform their chores in the organization. Each and every organization has its unique culture which gives employees and all other stakeholders in that organization the guidelines on how to behave. Ideo?s approach is founded on design thinking which a human centered approach to innovation is normally by integrating the needs of people, technology and the general requirements for success in business. Using the competing value framework as a point of reference, it appears that IDEO?S current organizational culture is a clan. This is because the organization has a great focus on flexibility and less concern for structure and controls; employees are driven through organizational vision, goals and output. People are able to work together as a family as they help one another. The company has also endeavored to train its people on how to use various tools to solve challenges (Amabile, Fisher, Pillmer, 2014). IDEOS is also geared towards a combination of adhocracy and market cultures inShow MoreRelatedIdentifying The Ideo s Shopping Cart Project Essay1286 Words   |  6 Pages Attributes enhancing innovation in an organisation Kashyap Pd. Marahatta BUS 540 Organizational Behavior Professor Shirley Chuo Mr. Rajiv Sharma Westcliff University 25/09/2016 â€Æ' Abstract This paper will be analysing the IDEO’s shopping cart project which was completed in just a mere seven days. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Constraints Facing The African Stock Market Economics Essay Free Essays

The African stock market is going progressively sophisticated in pricing, insulating and reassigning hazard. Tools such as derived functions and securitization contribute to this procedure but pose their ain hazard. The failure of accounting and ordinance to maintain abreast of development introduces more hazard with on occasion dramatic effects. We will write a custom essay sample on Constraints Facing The African Stock Market Economics Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now Macroeconomic Factors Macroeconomic hazards include rising prices hazard, involvement rate hazard, low modesty and thin fiscal market which all together affect the public presentation of a stock market. Macroeconomic policy has a great impact on the public presentation of the stock market. In 1996, the Zimbabwe stock market which accounted for an overall public presentation of 86.5 % . However, in 1997 its public presentation decreased by more than 50 % in the aftermath of dramatic authorities farm and to pay $ 240 million in pensions to veterans of Zimbabwe independency war. For the last two decennaries, the growing rate of existent per capita end product for Africa has been negative, while other parts have been demoing strong positive growing rates. For illustration, while between the 1970s and 1990s East Asia and South Asia moved from an mean growing rate of 4.6 per centum and 0.7 per centum to 6.4 per centum and 3.3 per centum, severally, Sub-Saharan Africa ‘s growing rate declined from 0.5 per centum in the 1970s to -0.4 per centum in the 1990s. Corporate Administration Coup vitamin D ‘ amp ; eacute ; cheapnesss is rather celebrated in African history. It appears that constitutional regulation are present at that place and politicians are pull stringsing fundamental laws to either seek thirster footings in office or perpetuate their stay. Therefore, there is a deficiency of good corporate administration in the states. In the absence of corporate administration, there is inappropriate policy taken by the authorities and regulative models. Furthermore, there is no control of corruptness, capacity edifice, and there is an uneffective, inefficient, no transparent and accountable system for mobilising and apportioning public every bit good as private resources. High unemployment In Africa, there is copiousness of unskilled labour and this may take to worsen of the on the job category. The growing in demand for skilled labour does non fit the diminution of unskilled and semi-skilled occupations. The labour market is switching towards more skilled workers, professionals and directors. A labour study in South Africa found that there is more demand for directors in the populace sector, particularly local authorities and peculiar services sectors Unemployment is pig-headedly high and edging upward. In South Africa the expanded unemployment rate is estimated to be every bit high as 40 % with the official rate at about 29 % . The fact that the labour market is biased against those with less accomplishment is reflected in the higher mean wage additions for skilled individuals. Trade Development Many African states are faced with a multiplicity of challenges that prevent them from take parting in the planetary economic system and harvesting the benefits of increased globalisation. Africa is the most disconnected continent. Fourteen states are landlocked, accounting for 30 % of Africa ‘s population. The roots of the job prevarication in chronic restraints to competitiveness including, hapless substructure, little and disconnected markets, undeveloped fiscal markets, weak systems to ease trade, weaknesses in cardinal establishments, and the deficiency of equal human resources. Political Hazard Political instability, institutional incapacity and societal unrest inhibit foreign capital influxs. These in bend lower investing appetencies and have a negative impact for economic chances and investing clime. Percepts of political hazard originating from peculiar events, such as those related to the recent elections in Kenya which generate market volatility and discourage investing. Africa is seen as a part of high political hazard, and important hazard premium are demanded by equity investors, loaners and insurance companies. Currency fluctuation hazard The planetary economic lag in universe growing may impact African exports of agricultural merchandises, minerals and hydrocarbons. Africa ‘s dependance on natural resource exports has made many states vulnerable to trade good monetary value dazes that are outside their control. Sudden additions in export grosss or import costs can do currency instability and budget uncertainness. Furthermore, there is strong grounds that currency depreciation has negative consequence on the public presentation of the African stock market. Crisis of International Confidence Many states in sub-Saharan Africa enjoyed robust economic growing in recent old ages. However, the nutrient and fuel monetary value dazes of 2007-08 that preceded the current planetary fiscal crisis weakened the external place of net importers of nutrient and fuel, caused rising prices to speed up, and dampened growing chances. A research done by IMF shows that in the yesteryear a 1 per centum point lag in planetary growing has led to an estimated ? per centum point lag in sub-Saharan African states. But the effects may be more marked this clip because the tightening of planetary recognition compounds the impact of the lag, worsening hazards for trade finance and other capital flows. Recommendations. The stock market needs specific attending when it comes to the menaces and challenges predominating. Normally, there are several ways which can take to the development of the stock market. Automation can be of great aid as it reduces costs every bit good as inefficiencies. It operates faster than the manual system which besides increases trading activities and liquidness. We besides have demutualization which is a procedure that involves a alteration in ownership construction and a alteration in legal and organisation signifier. Factors such as competition among exchanges, demand for increased capital, demand for good corporate administration in exchanges and the impulse to open up ownership of exchanges to public investors help demutualization addition popularity. Demutualization is expected to work out common construction jobs by opening up merchandising rights, acknowledging new trading spouses, and broadening ownership such that the populace can put in exchanges. It besides increases entree to services of the exchange and removes inordinate investing costs for fund holders. Another cardinal solution can be to beef up Financial Regulation and Supervision. Such a step will hike the assurance of investors every bit good as protects their rights and hence besides encourages them to put more in the stock market. The development of good quality establishments can besides impact the attraction of equity investing and lead to stock market development. Good quality establishments such as jurisprudence and order, democratic answerability, bureaucratic quality are of import determiners of stock market development in Africa because they cut down political hazard and heighten the viability of external finance. The increased engagement of investors on the stock market will besides assist advancing efficient market patterns and fiscal invention. They typically favor greater transparence and market unity in both primary and secondary markets, seek lower dealing cost, and promote efficient trading and colony installations. Enhancing surveillance of the OTC forex derivative markets by systematic processing and analysis of information on offshore activity will besides be of great aid. Another proposed solution to jobs faced by African stock markets is to incorporate stock exchanges. Unifying African stock markets into a individual regional exchange instantly is no uncertainty an ambitious and dashing undertaking, given the associated institutional and fiscal cost complexnesss. Advocates of this proposition argue that a good incorporate regional stock exchange in Africa will be a powerful beginning and driver of capital flows to Africa. Such an exchange will besides, if good structured, work out the current jobs of illiquidity, little size, and atomization. How to cite Constraints Facing The African Stock Market Economics Essay, Essay examples

Monday, April 27, 2020

Shakespeare And His Plays Essays - Shakespearean Tragedies

Shakespeare and His Plays William Shakespeare was a supreme English poet and playwright, universally recognized as the greatest of all the dramatists. A complete, authoritative account of Shakespeare's life is lacking; much supposition surrounds relatively few facts. His day of birth is traditionally held on April 23, and he was baptized on April 24, 1564. He was the third of eight children, and was the eldest son of John Shakespeare. He was probably educated in a local grammar school. As the eldest son, Shakespeare would of taken over his father's business, but according to one account, he became a butcher because of reverses in his father's financial situation. According to another account, he became a school master. That Shakespeare was allowed considerable leisure time in his youth is suggested by the fact that his plays show more knowledge of hunting and hawking than do those of other dramatists. In 1582, he married Anne Hathaway. He is supposed to have left Stratford after he was caught poaching in a deer park. Shakespeare apparently arrived in London about 1588 and by 1592 had attained success as a playwright. The publication of Venus and Adonis, The Rape of Lucrece and of his Sonnets established his reputation as a poet in the Renaissance manner. Shakespeare's modern reputation is based mainly on the 38 plays he wrote, modified, or collaborated on. Shakespeare's professional life in London was marked by a number of financially advantageous arrangements that permitted him to share in the profits of his acting company, the Chamberlain's Men, and its two theaters, the Globe and the Blackfriars. His plays were given special presentation at the courts of Queen Elizabeth I and King James I. After about 1608, Shakespeare's dramatic production lessened and he spent more time in Stratford. There he established a family in and imposing house, the New Place, and became a leading local citizen. He died on April 23, 1616, and was buried in the Stratford church. Although the precise date of many of Shakespeare's plays is in doubt, his dramatic career is divided into four periods: (1) the period up to 1594, (2) the years from 1594 to 1600, (3) the years from 1600 to 1608, (4) the period after 1608. In all periods, the plots of his plays were frequently drawn from chronicles, histories, or earlier fiction. Shakespeare's first period was one of experimentation. His early plays are characterized to a degree of superficial construction and verse. Some of the plays from the first period my be no more than retouchings of earlier works by others. Four plays dramatizing the English civil strife of the 15th century are possibly Shakespeare's earliest dramatic works. These plays, Henry VI, Parts I, II, III, and Richard III, deal with the evil results of weak leadership. Shakespeare's comedies of the first period represent a wide range. The Comedy of Errors depends on its appeal on the mistakes in identity between two sets of twins involved in romance and war. The Taming of the Shrew, The Two Gentlemen of Verona, and Love's Labour's Lost are all comedies and satires. Next, Shakespeare's second period includes his most important plays about English history. The second period historical plays include Richard II, Henry IV, Parts I and II, and Henry V. These plays deal with English kings who lose their power to their successors. Outstanding among the comedies of the second period is A Midsummer Night's Dream. It is fantasy filled and is achieved by the interweaving of several plots involving two pairs noble lovers, a group of bumbling townspeople, and members of the fantasy realm. Another comedy is The Merchant of Venice which is characterized by friendship and romantic love. The witty comedy Much Ado About Nothing is marred by an insensitive treatment of its main character. Shakespeare's most mature comedies, As You Like It, and Twelfth Night, are characterized by a hilarious and kindly charm that depends upon the attraction of lovely heroines. The Merry Wives of Windsor is a comedy about middle-class life which contains a comic victim of the middle-class. One of the two tragedies of this period is Romeo and Juliet. It is famous for its poetic treatment of youthful love, and dramatizes the fate of two lovers victimized by feuds of their elders. The other, Julius Caesar, is a serious tragedy of political rivalries. Shakespeare's third period includes his greatest tragedy and his dark or bitter comedies. The tragedies of this period are the most profound of his works. Hamlet goes far beyond other tragedies of revenge in picturing the mingled